Iraqi protesters are gathering in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square to mark one year since anti-government protests erupted and gripped the country.
Sunday’s demonstrations renewed the same calls from last October which saw the start of Iraq’s biggest anti-government protest movement since the 2003 fall of Saddam Hussein, with demonstrations in the capital Baghdad and Iraq’s mainly Shia south demanding basic services, employment opportunities and an end to corruption.
The nationwide, leader-less demonstrations became a decentralised movement that slammed a political class protesters saw as more loyal to Iran and the US than to Iraqi citizens.
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Large groups of protesters also gathered in other southern provinces including Babylon and Basra, holding posters and chanting anti-government slogans.
Protesters from various parts of Iraq started making their way to the capital last night for Sunday’s protests.
While some managed to enter Baghdad and reach Tahrir Square, others were prevented by security forces, according to activists and journalists.
“Today’s an important day as it marks a year since Oct 25 and our revolution for which we sacrificed blood and many martyrs,” said Muntather Mahdi, 24, told Al Jazeera.
“This is an important day, we are here to keep the movement going,” student Mohamed Ali said in the square that was the epicentre of the revolt.
Some planned to stay in Tahrir Square, while others assembled at the entrances of the heavily fortified Green Zone – where the seat of Iraq’s government and the US embassy are located – where security forces have been deployed since Saturday night.
Speaking from Allawi Square near the Green Zone, Ali Shimmari, a 26-year-old protester who made his way from the eastern governorate of Wasit in the morning, said he was determined to enter in spite of tensions between protesters and security forces being on the rise.
“Today is a continuation of what we started last year,” Shimmari told Al Jazeera.
“Our demands have not been met. We will continue our protests until we see the change we want,” he added, referring to demands including wholesale changes to the political class and holding accountable those who had attacked had protesters in the demonstrations that erupted last year.
Earlier, Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi had given strict orders to security forces to avoid the use of live ammunition and called on demonstrations to remain peaceful.
“Many people regard today as a test to see whether the movement can once again mobilise and draw the same crowds it did last year,” said Al Jazeera’s Simona Foltyn, reporting from Baghdad.
Last year, hundreds of thousands of protesters took to the streets to demand the removal of Iraq’s entire political elite, who they accused of ineptitude, corruption and being beholden to neighbouring Iran.
Some 600 protesters were killed and thousands wounded in months of clashes before the movement lost momentum and ground to a halt amid the coronavirus pandemic.
The protests forced the resignation of then-Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi. He was succeeded by al-Kadhimi, who pledged to integrate protesters’ demands into his transitional government’s plans.
But on the ground, little has been achieved. The new government has yet to deliver major reforms for the youthful country where, the World Bank says, one in three young people is unemployed.
Iraq has also witnessed a series of assassinations and forced disappearances of journalists and political activists since October 2019.
Al-Kadhimi pledged to investigate the recent killings, but no one has been held accountable to date.
Additional reporting by Abdallah Salam in Baghdad